Royal Armouries Manuscript I.33 is an anonymous German manuscript now in the collection of the Royal Armouries in Leeds. It is extremely significant as the earliest known surviving fencing manual, having been dated to the late 13th century, and presents a unique window into to world of early medieval combat. I.33 deals exclusively with the use of the single handed sword and buckler, a small, round shield held by a “punch grip” in the left hand. It offers a sophisticated, and potent fighting style with a clear, aggressive tactical structure.